The teaching and learning process is a simultaneous activity and the process comprises of the following steps:
- Context: All those factors outside of the classroom that might control teaching and learning
- Input: Those qualities or characteristics of teachers and students that they bring with them to the classroom knowledge
- Classroom Processes: Teacher and student behaviors in the classroom as well as some other variables such as classroom climate and teacher/student relationships
- Output: Measures of student learning taken apart from the standard instructional process.