Reproductive technologies are measures used to bypass the problems of infertility. These technologies involve exclusion of oocytes–oocyte is an immature ovum, commonly referred to as an ‘egg cell’ and their manipulation outside the woman’s uterus. The first IVF or the test-tube baby was born in 1978- Louise Brown- in England. Since the birth of Louise Brown, there has been much enhancement made in the field of reproductive technologies. Many more types of procedures are apt available to assist infertile couples or single individuals. Some of these procedures include:
- Artificial insemination is the effort to fertilize the female egg by means other than intercourse. The semen may be ‘washed’ to separate the sperm prior to injecting it into the female. The sperm must fertilize the egg. This technique is used when the male has a low sperm count or when the sperm carries mutant genetic factors. Thus with artificial insemination, there is no manipulation of a fertilized egg. Although there is no obliteration of newly created life by this method, ethical issues occur primarily with respect to the involvement of a third party, such as the sperm donor and in some cases, a surrogate mother.
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