The first paper (Shaffer and Hillman, 2000) use the grounded theory approach, as they state that it more appropriate for studies that do not have a much theoretical framework.
Three different companies were chosen with diverse operations but with different degrees of independence. Government relations managers at the three companies were chosen and contacted for questions and discussions in an unstructured informal interview format. The firms were not chosen at random but were identified first and contacted. As one author held research or employment associations with all of the three subject firms it was much easier to get time and the people were more forthcoming. This was deliberate on the part of the authors and as they conducted interviews, they conducted archival data review and went through different peer-reviewed articles. They also depended on another resource of information for the case firms, gathering data to the limit of theoretical saturation. They also changed names of the people and firms for privacy concerns.
Each interview was transcribed and coded to find common themes or relational information between the different firms. Emerging themes were categorized and discussed repeatedly to find common grounds. They were further analyzed and summed up through continual comparison, leading to broader categories. This lead to deeper investigations and also other theories and research was also integrated into their findings from the information provided by the corporations. In this paper, this was an unstructured study and the deductions and conclusions were formed by the personal judgments of the authors, therefore, it was a qualitative approach.
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