Several types of hormones are used to rouse the ovaries to produce oocytes. There are four major areas where adverse effects of ovarian stimulation and ovulation induction have been recognized. These include ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome, bone loss, adverse reproduction outcomes such as ectopic pregnancies (resulting from embryo implantation outside of the uterus where it would normally implant, for instance in the fallopian tubes), early pregnancy loss, multiple pregnancies, and the development of cancers, mainly in the ovary. Each year, thousands of clomiphene citrate prescriptions are filled, the vast bulk to women trying to conceive. Sold under brand names such as Clomid and Serophene, clomiphene is usually the first step in a series of drugs used to induce or improve ovulation. Its advantages over the other drugs are obvious: taken in pill form (rather than injected) for just a few days, most report the possible immediate adverse effects are similar to PMS symptoms. And it is simple to see why this drug is the usual introduction to infertility treatment. Ovarian hyper stimulation is achievable, while not probable. Some individuals may be predominantly sensitive to the effects of ovulation induction by drugs, resulting in over-production of hormones and egg follicles which in turn may lead to the loss of an ovary, or in a worst-case scenario, the woman’s life. In addition, it is possible that overuse of clomiphene citrate may lead to bigger risk of ovarian cancer, a particularly insidious and fatal form of the disease.(IVF.COM)
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