Sample Research Paper

Words 3,000

Introduction

DNA decoding is being done by the Human Genome Project (HGP); this is an international scientific effort to map all of the genes on the 23 pairs of human chromosomes and, to run the 3.1 billion DNA base pairs that make up the chromosomes. (Bishop and Waldholz, 1999) Begun in 1990 with the goal of facilitating scientists to understand the basis of genetic diseases and to expand insight into human evolution, the project was largely completed in 2000 when 85% of the human genome was decoded and ended in 2003 with 99% decoded. In the process, scientists identified genes for cystic fibrosis, neurofibromatosis, Huntington’s disease, and an innate form of breast cancer. In addition, the project decoded the genome of the bacterium E. coli, a fruit fly, and a nematode worm, in order to study genetic connection among species, and a mouse genome was also decoded.

The Human Genome Project involved laboratories in the United States, France, Great Britain, Germany, and Japan. It was financed in the United States by the National Institutes of Health and, to a lesser degree, by the Department of Energy. (Collins et al., 1998) The Human Genome Project (HGP) is fulfilling its promise as the single most significant project in biology and the biomedical sciences, one that will enduringly change biology and medicine.(Butler, 2001)The skill to analyze entire genomes is accelerating gene discovery and revolutionizing the breadth and profundity of biological questions that can be addressed in model organisms. The transition to sequence-based biology will urge continued progress in understanding gene-environment interactions and in development of highly precise DNA-based medical diagnostics and therapeutics. These exciting successes verify the view that acquisition of a comprehensive, high-quality human genome sequence will have an extraordinary impact and long-lasting value for basic biology, biomedical research, biotechnology, and healthcare. This paper discusses DNA Decoding and its ethical, social, legal and economic implication. It also discusses the possible benefits of such an endeavor.

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