After reconstruction, the position of the Negro in America gradually deteriorated. The expectation of the freedmen for full citizenship rights was crushed after the federal government deceives the Negro and restored white supremacist control to the South. The era of Jim Crow brought to the American Negro disfranchisement, social, didactic, and occupational discrimination, mass mob violence, murder, and lynching. Black people were denied their civil and human rights and reduced to a status of close to slavery or “second-class” citizenship. Racists, northern and southern, declared that the Negro was subhuman, barbaric, immoral, and innately inferior, physically and intellectually, to whites totally incapable of performance as an equal in white civilization. (African American Odyssey) It was at this time that the philosophy of Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. DuBois became popular, however, their motivations and teachings though originating from the same root, rights of the black people, had different remedies. The ideas presented by W. E. B. DuBois were more dynamic and revolutionary for making the black community more equal.
Booker T. Washington emerged in the middle of deteriorated social, political, and economic conditions for American blacks. His racial program set the terms for the debate on Negro programs for the decades between 1895 and 1915. Born a slave in a Virginia log cabin in 1856, Booker T. Washington was originator and principal of Tuskegee Institute, a normal and industrial school in Alabama. Washington had worked his way through Hampton Institute in Virginia. His rise to national prominence came in 1895 with a brief speech that outlined his social philosophy and ethnic strategy.
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