Sample Research Paper
There are three major applications of fiber optic telecommunications – each one corresponding to the three low fiber-attenuation windows: long-haul backbone networks (1.55µm) metro area networks (1.3µm) and local area optical networks (0.85µm). Domestic intercity systems pedestal on optical fibers have now been widely implemented. These use a digital transmission with pulse rates ranging from a few hundred Mbit/s to about 2Gbit/s. With the usage of single-mode fibers since 1984, repeater spacing of up-to 40km or more is achieved. Furthermore, with swift progress in time, the distinction between local, intra-city and intercity systems is blurring.
The U.S. military moved quickly to use fiber optics for improved communications and strategic systems. In the early 1970’s, the U.S. Navy installed a fiber optic telephone link aboard the U.S.S. Little Rock. The Air Force followed suit by developing its Airborne Light Optical Fiber Technology (ALOFT) program in 1976. Encouraged by the success of these applications, military R&D programs were funded to develop stronger fibers, tactical cables, high-performance components, and many demonstration systems ranging from aircraft to undersea applications.
Commercial applications followed soon after. In 1977, both AT&T and GTE installed fiber optic telephone systems in Chicago and Boston correspondingly. These successful applications led to the increase of fiber optic telephone networks. Initially, computers, information networks, and data communications were slower to embrace fiber, but today they too find a use for a transmission system that has lighter weight cable, oppose lightning strikes, and carries more information faster and over longer distances.
The broadcast industry also took up fiber optic transmission. At the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer, Norway, fiber optics transmitted the first ever-digital video signal, an application that persists to evolve today.
In the mid-1980 the United States government deregulated telephone service, allowing small telephone companies to compete with the giant, AT&T. Companies like MCI and Sprint quickly went to work installing regional fiber-optic telecommunications networks throughout the world. Taking benefit of railroad lines, gas pipes, and other natural rights of way, these companies laid miles fiber optic cable; permit the deployment of these networks to continue throughout the 1980’s. However, this shaped the need to expand fiber’s transmission capabilities.
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