Essay on Drug Abuse among young children

The health of young people has long been of interest to the World Health Organization (WHO) and many governments, but the rate of implementation has been very slow until recently. In the Alma Ata Declaration, for instance, there is hardly a mention of youth. For many years the health of young people has been neglected because they are considered to be less-vulnerable than children or older people to the onset of ill-health.
However, the young are now highly- vulnerable to socio-economic conditions, some of which have changed markedly in contemporary times. Despite recognizing the role of mental and social well-being in health development, these aspects seem not to have been adopted by most mainstream health programs.
Any improvements in mental- health seem to have arisen as the incidental result of a successful physical-health program and community-organization. To date, most existing Adolescent Health Programmes have been selective in nature with emphasis on reproductive health rather than holistic as its approach claimed to be.
Young people’s health is increasingly threatened by new dangers such as drug use/abuse and the growing problem of urban street children. Moreover, urbanization has been growing at a rapid pace in Tanzania. For instance, in 1965 only five percent of the population lived in urban areas. By 1997 twenty nine percent lived in urban areas and 50 percent of them were in the commercial capital.
In March 2002 the first Inter-African Conference on Adolescent Health was held in Nairobi, Kenya. Unwanted-pregnancies, induced- abortion, sexually-transmitted diseases including AIDS, and family-life education were important features of the agenda for the conference, the future of any society depends largely upon its children. If it is to survive, a society must make adequate provision for their care, nurture, and socialization. Cultural survival depends upon whether the customs and values of that society are transmitted from one generation to the next through the family and other social institutions.

Essay on Environmental Leverage

“Environmental leverage is a tool for balancing the economic and environmental merit of projects in order to develop a strategic environmental plan”. Pollution prevention activities are often justified in terms of cost. Companies often provide funding for projects with significant economic benefits.
In doing this, projects with substantial environmental merits, but lacking in economic merits are never supported. Therefore it becomes critical to evaluate waste generation with respect to a unit of product or service.
This requires that a specific work unit accounts for a specific amount of waste generation or TRI release. Work units may include hourly labor, raw material used, number of parts, the weight of final product, dollar value of the final product, or another appropriate unit of work. Facilities are often asked to report the adjusted quantity change when reporting pollution prevention progress. This measure allows for changes in business or production activities that generate waste.
Progress may be recognized even if waste generation increases. The ideal situation would be to justify projects based on both cost and the environmental impact of a pollution source. ERM-Southwest, Inc. has developed environmental leverage in order to quantify this impact with respect to the mass, toxicity, and fate of pollutants involved. This formula illustrates the reduction in “environmental units” resulting from the implementation of a project. This is one of the few attempts to go beyond the standard methods of assessing pollution prevention efforts by quantifying pollution with respect to toxicity and environmental impact.
According to this source, by combining the concept of environmental leverage with common economic analysis techniques, management can ensure that capital expenditures for pollution prevention and waste minimization are consistent with the long-term environmental strategy developed for a facility.

Essay on Importance of Environmental Education

The Present Curricula on Environmental Education in Elementary Schools Environmental education has become one of the most important aspects of education in developed countries. In order to keep the island’s environmental quality from deteriorating, the Republic of China has been doing its best to enhance its environmental education. The maintenance of the environmental quality is not only based on the citizens’ awareness but most importantly it is also based on the actions of Chinese people.
According to studies, human awareness of environmental qualities must be cultivated during childhood. In elementary schools, there are environmental concepts, direct and indirect subject matter, contents of the textbook and supplementary materials for the present curricula on environmental education available for discussion. The Environmental Concepts There are six environmental concepts that are required for China’s present curricula on environmental education in elementary schools.
(1) The earth is a complex environmental system which exhibits a series of interactions involving living and non-living organisms, and how they are interrelated with each other.
(2) Natural resources should be reasonably used, otherwise, the quality of life deteriorates quickly. There is only a limited amount of natural resources, and human beings cannot overpopulate the world. The renewable resources, such as agriculture and the sun’s and the ocean’s energy resources, should be properly used to produce a healthy environment.
(2) All kinds of pollutants will cause a crisis for the surviving organisms.
(4) Balance within the ecosystem is the fundamental basis for the survival of humans and other living organisms.
(5) The environment belongs to everyone. Everyone has a responsibility and right to environmental protection. The existence of benefits in preventing pollution is unquestionable, however the accurate assessment of these remains difficult. To date, the predominant method of assessing progress is through waste generation data. The amount of waste generated in one year is compared to the amount generated the following year.

Essay on Historical Analysis of US Growth

Prior to the American economy’s recovery from the early-1980s recession, the poverty rate was very closely correlated with the country’s overall economic growth. During the 1960s, when annual GDP growth averaged over 4 percent (and the Great Society antipoverty programs were begun), the poverty rate declined from 22 percent to just over 12 percent. By 1973 at 11.1 percent of the population, poverty had reached its historic low in the United States.
It increased during the 1974-1975 recession (to 12.3 percent) then began to decline slowly until the early 1980s, when the highest unemployment rates since the Great Depression helped push the poverty rate back up to 15 percent by 1982 the highest since 1965. However, by 1985 the third full year of economic recovery poverty was still at 14 percent, and it remained in the 13 to 14 percent range throughout the late 1980s despite continued economic growth. This unprecedented failure of poverty to respond to expansionary economic conditions (average GDP growth from 1981 to 1990 was 2.6 percent) has become even more pronounced during the 1990s.
For a number of reasons, average wages in the United States were only 10 percent higher in 1994 ($25,070) than in 1973 ($22,694), whereas average hourly wages in these two years were nearly the same ($14.40 in 1994, compared to $14.22 in 1973; ail amounts are in 1995 dollars). Annual pay was only able to increase due to the increased average hours worked per year by American workers. At the same time, and as should be expected, given the majority share of wages in.
Americans’ total income, the distribution of wages followed a trend similar to that of income; those with the lowest-paying jobs had to accept the largest percentage decreases in pay. American workers at the 20th percentile of the wage scale (those making more than the lowest-paid 19 percent but less than the highest-paid 80 percent of all workers) saw their average real wage decline by 11.1 percent between 1973 and 1995 (from $6.96 per hour to $6.19 per hour in 1995 dollars). Most American workers faced declining real wages during this period, and even those at the 80th percentile of the scale realized only a 3 percent real increase over more than two decades.

Essay on Environmental Protection Administration

Environmental protection education is very much emphasized by the EPA. The programming committee has proposed a conceptual framework containing objectives and guidelines for environmental education (EE) in its scope and topics. They also designed a general survey which included subtopics on the importance of EE, school and environmental problems. These have been the foundation for EE study in Taiwan. Its research into the promotion of EE in Taiwan has created the blueprint for EE goals, plans, and facilities, laying the way for future development of EE in Taiwan. The EPA of the Republic of China published a list of facilities for EE promotion and teacher training. They also promoted EE as one of the most important tasks for provincial and city governments. Additionally, National Taiwan Normal University cooperated with the EPA to set up an Environmental Education Center in August 1988. Since August 1989, the EPA has worked with nine national teachers’ colleges throughout the island to establish more environmental education centers, the purpose of which is to systematically collect information, edit textbooks, publish information, and train teachers.
The Ministry of Interior is responsible for promoting and guiding pollution prevention and ecological and wildlife protection as it pertains to city planning, land utilization, land construction, national parks and coastal construction, it also offers environmental education to administrators and workers involved in sewage treatment and water supply. Similarly, the Ministry of Economics. It promotes and guides environmental education among the water resource, mineral resource and energy resource sectors. It works toward industrial pollution prevention and offers environmental education to administrators and workers involved in waste treatment and industrial environmental protection. The Bureau of Information. It is responsible for offering environmental education to their related administrators and workers and to promote and guide environmental education and protection among their information and news circulation.

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