Research Paper on Biased Sentencing

Social psychological research has focused on several of these psychological and behavioral factors that could bias capital sentencing. First is the death qualification of jurors. Several studies demonstrate that death-qualified juries are more likely to be conviction prone and biased toward death than juries that include non-death qualified jurors. Second, poor comprehension of sentencing instructions has been clearly demonstrated.
A misunderstanding could lead to the arbitrary imposition of the death penalty; however, it is suspected that the pattern of misunderstanding is more likely to bias jurors toward a sentence of death. Third, it has been suggested that in order for jurors to follow the instructions, not only must they comprehend the instructions but the instructions must also address erroneous beliefs that jurors bring with them to the courtroom. Finally, the current research explores the fourth source of bias – the instructions themselves. That is, the procedures jurors are required to follow may lead them to a particular sentencing decision, Le, death. The literature on death qualification, comprehension of instructions and prior knowledge as reasons for biased sentencing will be reviewed before introducing the instructions as a source of bias for the dissertation. Death Qualification.
All jurors selected for a trial in which a death penalty is an option must be death qualified. That is, because death is an option, they must be able to follow the law and consider death as an alternative in the sentencing decision. During the selection, process jurors are asked their attitudes about the death penalty and more specifically whether they would be willing to impose the death penalty (if appropriate) if the defendant were found guilty (Witherspoon v Illinois. 19681). If the juror is not willing to impose the death penalty he or she is either excused or “rehabilitated” to see if there are at least some circumstances under which juror could impose the death penalty. If the juror is willing to impose the death penalty, i.e. follow the law, then he or she remains as a juror (unless excused for other causes or by peremptory challenge). This procedure leads to what is known as a “death-qualified” jury.

Essay on Five Gap Analysis

Gap 1: Consumer expectation – management perception gap
It has been often noted that the service firms lack sufficient understanding regarding the features that ought to be intrinsic in the service for meeting the needs of the customers. Along these lines, the services firms are often unable to determine the levels of performance on those features required to ensure provisioning of high-quality service. This lack of understanding directly influence the way customers asses service quality.

Gap 2: Management perception – service quality specification gap
This gap prevails when the company realizes the needs and expectations of the customers but does not acquire sufficient resources to meet the expectations. Management conflicts, market conditions, and resource constraints are some of the factors that influence this gap which in turn impact the service quality perception of the customers.

Gap 3: Service Quality Specifications
The companies that provide service delivery gap could have recommendations for executing service well and considering and treating customers appropriately however these do not mean high and effective service superiority enactment is guaranteed. Workers play an imperative part in promising good and effective service eminence view and the worker’s performance cannot be consistent. Moreover, this affects the distribution of quality service which has an influence in terms of clients’ notice service superiority.

Gap 4: Service Delivery – Peripheral Communications Gap
Communications to the external shareholders can highly affect both the customer expectations of specific service provided along with consumer opinions of the supplied service. However, businesses can abandonment in order to enlighten patrons of distinct determinations to make sure the quality that is not noticeable to them and this might impact service quality acuities by clients.

Gap 5: Anticipated Service – supposed service gap from the study,
It presented that the main key to guaranteeing virtuous service quality is meeting or greater than what targeted customers suppose from the service along with that judgment of extraordinary and truncated service quality be contingent on in what way users observe the real recital in the setting of what they anticipated.

Research Paper on Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)

In the last two decades interest in Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), formerly known as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), has increased rapidly, particularly in the United States yet it is not a new subject within psychiatry. The phenomenon of multiple personalities or dissociative identities has been documented intermittently for the past two hundred years. In the eighteenth century, this phenomenon was diagnosed and researched, but in the nineteenth century, it fell into oblivion.
The history and documentation of MPD/DID suggest that there is a long-standing focus on this diagnosis associated with long-standing confusion. There has been a lack of clarity in both defining and understanding DID. The rise and fall in the popularity of this diagnosis are the results of historical and contemporary critiques that even dispute the existence of the dissociative identity or multiple personality phenomena. The questions range from philosophical issues, such as the possibility of one person having multiple personalities, to claims that childhood sexual abuse is the primary cause of this disorder.
One long-standing critique questions the existence of different alters in the patient. The term alters is defined in the literature as states exhibited by a person that appear as separate and distinct personalities. The symptoms associated with the disorder are intrusive and recurrent cognitions connected to the traumatic event or stimulus, flashbacks, sleep difficulties, irritability, difficulty concentrating, active behavioural avoidance of stimuli related to the traumatic event, and psychological distress associated with expose to stimuli or symbols related to the traumatic stressor or event. Secondary trauma has been documented previously and can be seen, for example, in situations where parents who are war veterans pass on trauma-like responses to their children

Essay on Description of Trauma

It can be considered that an event is traumatic from a psychological point of view if it is a threat or attack that: It occurs suddenly, unexpectedly or out of the norm (this includes continued abuse). It exceeds the individual’s perceived ability to handle the threat or attack. It disturbs the frames of reference of the individual and other basic schemes that serve to understand and manage in the world.
For the WHO, at the ICD-10, trauma occurs when: The person has been exposed to a stressful event or situation (both brief and prolonged) of an exceptionally threatening or catastrophic nature, which could cause profound discomfort in almost everyone. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, DSM-5, is more restrictive since it considers that for a post-traumatic stress disorder to occur there must be an event that involves exposure to death, serious injury or sexual violence, either real or in the form of a threat, your own or someone close to you. Considering this necessary for post-traumatic stress disorder, this definition leaves out events that can be very traumatic and have devastating effects; but they are not directly related to situations of physical violence or death danger.
To give an example, a couple’s infidelity is experienced as a traumatic betrayal that has effects similar to post-traumatic stress disorder. However, in the definition of the ICD-10, it would be considered a traumatic fact of the betrayal of the couple in infidelity. It can trigger processes similar to those described in DSM 5 to define post-traumatic stress disorder. The advantage of DSM 5 is that it has a more detailed list of the consequences of trauma when it becomes a psychological problem. Thus, they include that it leaves sequels in the form of dreams, recurring memories or other ways of reliving what happened; that cause great discomfort that affects work or personal life. When the person initiates an avoidance strategy against sequelae trying to eliminate them, another series of emotional problems occur and there is also an alteration of alertness.

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